السبت، 22 مارس، 2014

تعريف كرة اليد بالانجليزية

The origins of handballThe earliest origins of this game date back to 1898 , with the appearance of Denmark " haandbold " , a game that was played on a small field .Other historians closer handball an old game called " hazena ", which was practiced in Czechoslovakia.In 1900 , an Irishman named Casey introduced in the United States a similar game to the current hand : sport aroused such enthusiasm that a competition was held in Los Angeles in 1919.However, invention of this sport is attributed to the German Carl Schellenz , who was a professor of Germanic Normal School of Physical Education in Leipzig.He created the handball in 1919 , drawing the female game " Torball " ( shot on goal ) .
History of HandballHandball , then played outdoors by teams of eleven , appeared as a demonstration sport at the Olympics in Amsterdam in 1928. It was on this occasion that the International Amateur Handball Federation ( fiha ) was founded.In 1936 , while fiha already has 23 affiliated countries between sport at the Olympic Games in Berlin . Six nations participate in the competition : Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Romania and the United States.Two years later , Germany organized the first World Championships in Eleven and Seven and won both titles.After the Second World War, disappears handball Program Summer Olympics : it will be the Munich Games in 1972 , so that the hand is entered in seven Olympic program for men. The same event for women appear at the Montreal Games in 1976.In 1946, eight national federations based in Copenhagen Current International Handball Federation (IHF ) .In 1954 , playing seven made ​​his formal entry into competition and quickly dethroned the game at eleven . It finally disappeared from the international scene in 1966.Meanwhile, the sport practiced initially settled in outdoor gyms.
GeneralHandball is played with a ball measuring 58 to 60 cm in circumference and weighing between 425 and 475 grams for men . Women use them on a balloon 54 to 56 cm in circumference weighing between 325 and 400 grams .Each team consists of seven players: a goalkeeper and six field players divided into two wingers, two rear , one center-half and a pivot. The number of substitutions is unlimited.The playing area is a rectangle 40 meters long and 20 meters wide comprising a playing surface and two goal areas (located in front of each goal).The object surface is defined by a line called the " line of 6 meters ."The playground also features:- A free-throw line or "line of 9 meters " : dashed line , drawn 3 m from the goal area line- A "line of 7 meters " line 1 meter long line, directly in front of goal and is parallel to the goal line and separated by 7 meters.- A line of limitation for the goalkeeper or " 4-meter line ."
Rules of the gameThe goal is to score in the goal of the opponent , throwing the ball to the strength of the arm, outside the goal area ( located 6 meters from the goal).Note : However, an attacker can jump over this surface, provided you have made ​​the shot before falling .Each goal is worth one point. At the end of regulation time, the team with the most points wins the game.Field players may not play the ball with the hands the ball touching any part of the body below the knees is considered foul.Only the goalkeeper can divert the ball of the foot ( except outside of his area, where it is considered a fielder ) .It is prohibited to one of his teammates to pass him the ball when it is in its area, under penalty throw for the opponents.Players can dribble the ball and make a maximum of three steps with the ball in hand.
sanctionsThe various sanctions handball game are :- Warning or yellow card : it punishes mistakes early virulent defense- The temporary exclusion of 2 minutes: it punishes attitudes and anti- sportsmen and virulent defenses that do not affect the physical integrity gestures the offending lot for two minutes and let his team play a less during this periodNote : If a player is sent off three times during the game , it is definitely excluded.- Direct disqualification or red card: it punishes a player who received 3 exclusions 2 minutes or committing an unsportsmanlike act or gross negligence , and this penalty leads to permanent exclusion from the player , replaceable two minutes after its exclusion- Expulsion : it punishes a particularly violent voluntary blow to any person for the environment ( player, referee , spectator ... ) . The ejected player can not be replaced and must immediately leave the playing area and the area of ​​change.

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