السبت، 1 مارس، 2014

Effect of calcium, lime, Wettable sulfur and copper oxicloride on vine growth



Effect of calcium, lime, Wettable sulfur and copper oxicloride on vine growth and control of Dead-arm disease and bunch rot of Ruby seedless grapevines
Abd ElghanyA.A*and M.E.A.Abo-Rehab**
*Horticultural research institute, agricultural research center, Giza, Egypt.      **Plant pathology research institute, agricultural research center, Giza, Egypt.

     Abstract

In filed trials in 2005, 2006 and extended to January 2007, 12 year –old Ruby seedless grapevines, quadric lateral cordon trained and spur pruned. Vines were sprayed with lime after two weeks of beery set,cacl2one week later, lime and cacl2 with wetable sulfur as short interval weekly from full bloom until fourth week of berry set or and copper oxicloride at fourth week of berry set as mixed with the dose of wetable  sulfur of this week . One concentration (3g./L.) Was used to each compound. All trial vines were sprayed with wetable sulfur in long interval (15days) from budburst.                                                                                                                  
 Vine vigor expressed in terms of weight of pruning. Dry weight and carbohydrate content of basal cane were improved in the second and third season of the study; carbohydrates content was improved in the second season compared to control as affected by experimental foliar spraying compounds the best improvement was occurred    with spraying vines with lime (3g./L.) , cacl2 (3g./L.)  And wietable sulfur (3g. /L.) As short interval weekly from full bloom until fourth week of berry set and copper oxicloride (3g. /L.) one time mixed with the dose of wietable sulfur fourth week of beery set, However this treatment significant reduced disease severity in both dead-arm disease and bunch rot disease. Also this treatment gave the lower number of dead lower and upper spur of last season compared with second and third season of the trial.                                                                                                                           
Introduction
  Nutrition considers an important factor for vine balance growth. Regulate nutrition during various stages of vine growth and fruit developments are most accurate indicator of the nutritional health of vine and other fruit trees. The presence of nutrient deficiency symptoms indicate an acute shortage in the plant, they my reduced yields, fruit quality and vine resistance for diseases. Soils which contain height level in potassium inhibit magnesium or calcium uptake so induce deficiencies of these element. Magnesium deficiencies may result from low soil PH or excessively high soil calcium. Dolomite lime   applications are advised if PH is too low, But magnesium sulfate is preferred if soil calcium level's an excessively high (Eric, 1996) some nutrient compound are effective on improving nutrient status of the vines and its resistance against disease if used as foliar spraying on the vine at specified vine annual growth and development or short or long interval such as lime (Mg, Ca), cacl2, witabl sulfur (S) as macronutrient or copper oxicloride (Cu) as microelement.      Spraying Ruby seedless grapevines with lime (3g. / L.) After tow weeks of berry set followed by cacl2 (3g. / L.)  One week later improved grape quality, beery firmness and wood maturity Abd Elghany (2006) More over Williams et al (1996) used tow dolomite liming materials ca (OH) 2 .Mg(OH)2 or caco3 .Mgco3 on impatiens with both lime type their was increase in tissue ca and Mg as the applied concentrations. On the other hand Stefanini, et al (1994) noted that, Mg application increased plant vigor (expressed in terms of the weight of pruning) in vines uva di   Troia cultivar.      Many plant proteins contain sulfur however copper (CU) that utilizes protein (weaver1976).  Eastewood (2002) indicated that fungal pathogenic infection reduced with increased calcium uptake by plants. A steady supply of available calcium delivered during fertigation by calcium nitrate reduces Fusarium oxysporum activity, the fungal pathogen that causes wilt and crown rot in tomatoes. Research indicates that tomato plants receiving low rates of calcium fertilization were severely infected with Fusarium oxysporum, compared to healthy plants receiving higher calcium rates. Calcium fertilization also reduces Pythium blight and root rot of turf grass and citrus. Also Eastewood (2002) showed that increasing potassium concentration in Lettuce from 1.44 to 4.89 percent did not deter Botrytis infection. However, decreasing tissue calcium concentration by half from 1.06 to 0.54 percent increased infection from a slight to moderate rating. A further decrease in calcium by one-half in the tissue (0.54 to 0.22%) resulted in severe Botrytis infection. Lesson to be learned: enhanced cell wall structural integrity supplied by calcium fertilization is important for plant health. (Attia and saber1995) reported that during the season 1995 in Eelkhatatba Menofia governorate in Egypt heavy infection was found on both primary and trifoliate leaves, stem, shoots, petioles, tendrils and fruit. (Saber 1998) Isolated phomopsis viticola as causal pathogen for dead- arm disease in Egypt. (Fatma, M. Radwan1985)Isolated many fungi from rotted berries of different grapevines cultivars  in different locations in Egypt as Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Botryodeplodia theobroma, Alternaria alternate, Pencillum italicum, The objective of this trail was produced grapes and control diseases  without using any toxic compound inorganic form.                                        
Material and Method
This experiment was conducted during tow seasons 2005and 2006 and extended to January 2007 on 12- year old" Ruby seedless" grapevines, spaced at 2*3 Meters apart in sandy soil of a private vineyard at Elkhatatba, Menofia governorate the vines were normal growth, vigor and quadrilateral cordon training system with spur pruning, 20 bearing unit, each bearing unit contain two spur each spur contain two buds (80buds/vine). 105 vines were chosen, 5vines per replicate with three replicate the complete randomized block design was used as design to statistical analysis and L.S.d. test were used to compare between mean's of treatment. The concentration were used to each compound was (3g /L) All vines were sprayed with wetable sulfur as long interval 15 days The  treatments were as follows spraying                                  1-spraying Lime (3g. /L.) After two weeks of beery set + wittable sulfur (3g. /L.)  Weekly from full bloom until fourth week of beery set.                                                 2-spraying cacl2 (3g. /L.) After three weeks of beery set +wettable sulfur.                    3-Spraying lime (3g. /L.) After two weeks of beery set + cacl2 (3g. /L.) After three weeks of beeryset+wettablesulfur(3g./L).                                                                       
 4- Spraying lime (3g. /L.) After two weeks of beery set + wettable sulfur (3g. /L.) Weekly from full bloom until four weeks after berry set + copper oxichlorid (3g. /L.) At fourth week of beery set as mixed with wettable                                                          5- Spraying cacl2 (3g. /L.)+ wettable sulfur (3g./L) /L.)  + Copper  oxicloride  (3g./L)                                                                                                                               
 6- Spraying lime (3g. /L.) + cacl2 (3g. /L.)+ wettable sulfur (3g. /L.)  Copper  oxichlorid(3g./L.)                                                                                                            
7-Control.                                                                                                                        
One concentration (3g. /L.) Was used to each experimental compound. Lime sprayed on the vines after two weeks of beery set. Cacl2 sprayed after three weeks of beery set.wettable sulfur sprayed in short interval weekly from full bloom until forth week of berry set .While copper oxicloride sprayed after four week of beery set as mixed with the dose of wittable sulfur of this week, all vines of this trail sprayed with wettable sulfur in long interval 15 days after bud burst including control. Vine growth were investigated for the following characteristics                          a- Pruning weight Kg /vine as a current season shoots in the January of the winter pruning of the season of the study                                                                                                                       
b- Cane dry weight percentage, samples of the basal of three nods off shoots were collected on January of the study seasons samples were cut into small pieces and fresh weight were recorded, oven dried at 70 c0  for 72 hours and then weighted the percentage of dry weight were calculated.                                                                       
c- Cane carbohydrates percentage ,samples of basal current seasons shoots (1-3 nods) were collected on January 1st in the two season as percentage  of dry weight it determined  calorimetrically at 490 mu wave length, using the phenol sulfuric acid methods described by smith et al (1956).                                                                        Disease observation:
This trail was conducted with the target to determine the efficacies of test chemical in a spray program against dead- arm disease and bunchy rot disease.
 Dead-arm disease assessment: The dead-arm disease evaluated on 20 canes and shoots of each replication based on the scale (abo-Rehab 2002):
 0-No symptoms.
1- Shoots with 1-2 spots on internodes.
 2- Shoots with 3-5 spots on internodes.
 3- Shoots with 5- 10 spots on   internodes
4-Shoots with up to10 sots on the internodes
The disease severity (DS) was calculated according to the formula described by (abo-Rehab 2002) as follows: Disease severity (%) = (Σ (n x v)/ N xV) 100, where, n = No. of shoots at rate v (disease score), N = total no. of shoots investigated and V = highest disease severity rate.
 Bunchy rot disease assessment:
The bunchy rot disease evaluated on the bunch in the following scale on 30 bunches for each replication.
 0- No symptoms.
1- 1-10 % infection on the bunch.
 3- Up to20 % infection on the bunch. The disease severity (DS) was calculated according to the following formula Disease severity (%) = (Σ (n x v)/ N xV) 100, where, n = No. of bunches at rate v (disease score), N = total no. of bunches investigated and V = highest disease severity rate dead spurs of the last season of lower spur and upper spur on the bearing units were recorded during winter pruning (January) as number per vine. Isolated of causal pathogen and confirm its pathogenicity carried out as method describe by Saber M. (1998). For dead-arm disease and (fatma, Radwan 1985) for bunch rot.                                                             
                                      
Results and discussion

Many characteristics consider an indicator to vine growth such as pruning weight of current season shoots in the winter pruning per vine, dry weight of cane percentage and carbohydrate content of cane percentage     Table (1) Effect of lime, cacl2, and wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride on pruning weight, dry weight of cane and carbohydrate content of Ruby seedless grapevines in 2005, 2006 and2007 seasons.                                  
Basal cane carbohydrate%
Dry weight of basal cane (1-3 nods)%
Pruning weight
(Kg./vine)
characters
P.N
2006
2005
2007
2006
2005
2007
2006
2005
Treatment/seasons
13.6
13.2
47
48
46
0.93
1.1
0.8
Lime+wettable sulfur
1
13.9
13.1
47
47
45
0.97
1.1
0.8
Cacl2+ wettable sulfur
2
14.2
13.4
48
48
46
1.17
1.2
0.8
Lime+ Cacl2+wettable sulfur
3
13.6
13.1
47
47
45
1.0
1.1
0.9
Lime+wettable sulfur +copper oxicloride
4
13.8
13.3
48
47
46
1.03
1.1
0.9
Cacl2+ wettable sulfur+copper oxicloride
5
14.4
13.3
49
49
46
1.27
1.2
0.8
Lime+ Cacl2+wettable sulfur+copper oxicloride
6
12.6
13.4
45
45
46
0.77
0.8
0.9
control
7

Pruning weight                Dry weight of basal cane         basal cane carbohydrates
L.S.D. 0.05 T: 0.09                   L.S.D. 0.05 T:   0.83                   L.S.D. 0.05 T: 0.43
L.S.D. 0.05 Y: 0.06                  L.S.D. 0.05 Y:  0.55                    L.S.D. 0.05 Y: 0.23
L.S.D. 0.05 Y*T: 0.15              L.S.D. 0.05 Y*T:  1.44               L.S.D. 0.05Y* T: 0.61

Data in table (1) showed that, foliar spraying Ruby seedless grapevines with lime, cacl2, lime and cacl2, with wettable sulfur or and copper oxicallorid were pronounced increased pruning weight in the second and third seasons but did not in the first season the best increments in the second and third season were resulted with spraying vines with lime and cacl2 and wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride. These results of the first season due to the absence of treatments affect these results of second and third season are in harmony with Abd Elghany (2006) noted that foliar spraying of Ruby seedless with lime (3g./L.) two weeks after set and cacl2 (3g./L.) three weeks after set were significant increased  pruning weight per vine compared to control in the two season of the trial. However, Marwad et al (2001) noted that sprayed vines of Thompson seedless with calcium at full bloom and three weeks later increased pruning weight, Moreover Stefanini et al (1994) recorded that, application Magnesium increased plant vigor (expressed in terms of the weight of pruning) in uva di troig vines(lime content calcium                       Magnesium) Regarding dry weight percentage of basal shoots (1-3 nods), data in table (1) obtained that, foliar spraying of Ruby seedless grapevines with lime (3g. /L.) after two weeks of beery set or cacl2 (3g. /L.) after three weeks of beery set or both lime and cacl2 with wettable sulfur (3g./L.) in short interval weekly from full bloom until forth week of berry set mixed with the dose of wettable sulfur of this week were improved dry weight significantly in the second and third season of the study but did not in the first season . The best improvement was recorded with treatment lime followed by cacl2 with wettable sulfur or and copper oxiclorid. These results of the second and third season due to effect of treatments, while in the first season were determined before treatments. This results of basal cane dry weight my be due to the role of calcium is constituent of the middle lamella of cell walls, Favors translocation of amino acid and carbohydrates, moreover, sulfur and copper  many plant proteins contain sulfur ,cu that utilize proteins(Weaver,1976) .Concerning carbohydrate content of basal cane (1-3 nods) of Ruby seedless grapevines , Data in tab (1) obtained that ,foliar spraying of lime after two weeks of beery set with wettable sulfur or cacl2 after three weeks of berry set with wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride in the fourth week of beery set were improved cane carbohydrates percentage in the second season compared to control, but did not in the first season  the best increment were occurred with applications vines with lime followed by cacl2 with wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride.  During winter pruning the last season spurs which dead counted per vine in the season in the trial.                                                                                                            

Table (2) Effect of lime, cacl2, and wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride on the number of last season dead spur of Ruby seedless grapevines in 2005, 2006 and2007 seasons.                                                                                                                             
spurs upper Dead No/vine
spurs Lower Dead No/vine
characters
P.N


2007
2006
2005
2007
2006
2005
Treatment/seasons

1.7
1.3
3.0
2.3
2.7
4.3
Lime+wettable sulfur
1

1.7
1.3
2.7
2.7
2.3
3.3
Cacl2+ wettable sulfur
2

1.3
1.3
3.0
2.0
2.3
3.7
Lime+ Cacl2+wettable sulfur
3

1.3
1.3
3.0
2.0
2.7
3.3
Lime+wettable sulfur +copper oxicloride
4

1.3
1.0
3.0
1.7
1.3
3.3
Cacl2+ wettable sulfur+copper oxicloride
5

1.3
1.0
3.0
1.3
1.3
3.0
Lime+ Cacl2+wettable sulfur+copper oxicloride
6

3.0
2.0
3.3
3.3
3.7
4.3
control
7














Spurs lower dead                                  spurs upper dead     
L.S.d.05 T: 0.88                                      L.S.d.0.05 T: 0.73   
L.S.d.05 Y: 0.58                                     L.S.d.0.05   Y: 0.48 
  L.S.d.05 Y* T: 1.5                                  L.S.d.0.05 Y* T: 1.3
 
Data in table (2) showed that applications Ruby seedless grapevines with lime, cacl2, lime and cacl2with wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride reduced number of dead spur. The reduction was noted in both lower and upper spur of the last season compared to control. The reduction were more pronounced with vine foliar spraying of lime and cacl2 with wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride in the second and third seasons of the trail, While in the first season did not differences among the vines of the trial .These results of the first season may be due to the effect treatments was absent. While the reduction of last season old spur of the second and third seasons may be due to improving of the vine nutrition Stat From this trail we conclude that if nutrition program of Ruby seedless grapevines include spraying vines with lime (3g./L.) after two weeks of beery set followed by cacl2 (3g./L.) one week later and wettable sulfur (3G./L.) weekly from full bloom until fourth weak of beery set and copper oxiclorid (3g./L.) mixed with the dose of wettable sulfur of this week was pronounced improved vine growth  increasing weight of wood pruning (current shoots) per vine, dray weight and carbohydrate content of basal cane (1-3node) .Moreover reduced old spurs of last season which dead.                                                                                                   
 Table (3) Isolated fungi from plant diseases.
Isolated fungi and its ability to pathogenicity
Part of plant
Phomopsis viticola (+), Alternaria sp (-).
Basal shoots
Phomopsis viticola(+)
dead Spurs
Botrytis cinerea(+), Aspergillus niger (+),Pencillium itallecum(+)
Bunches
(+) positive reactions.
(-) negative reactions
Results in table (3) are in harmony with (Saber 1998), (Abo-Rehab 2002), (Rashed 2006), (Fatma, M.Radwan1985)
Table (4) Effect of lime, cacl2, and wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride on the disease severity of dead-arm disease and bunch rot disease of Ruby seedless grapevines in 2005, 2006 seasons.                                                                                  
% Disease severity of bunch rot
% Disease severity of dead-arm disease
Characters
P.N
2006
2005
2006
2005
Treatment/Season
3.9
4.5
2.1
3.2
Lime+wettable sulfur

1
2.9
3.3
1.3
2.9
Cacl2+ wettable sulfur

2
2.4
3.1
1.6
2.7
Lime+ Cacl2+wettable sulfur
3
3.5
4.1
1.9
3.0
Lime+wettable sulfur +copper oxicloride
4
0.0
2.9
0.0
2.1
Cacl2+ wettable sulfur+copper oxicloride
5
0.0
2.6
0.0
1.3
Lime+ Cacl2+wettable sulfur+copper oxicloride
6
6.3
6.4
4.1
4.5
control
7
Disease severity of dead-arm             Disease severity of bunch rot
L.S.d. 0.05 T= 0.72                                         L.S.d. 0.05 T=0.21
L.S.d. 0.05 T= 0.38                                        L.S.d. 0.05 T=0.11
L.S.d. 0.05 T= 1.02                                        L.S.d. 0.05 T=0.30

Data in table (4) showed that applications Ruby seedless grapevines with lime, cacl2, lime and cacl2with wettable sulfur or and copper oxicloride reduced disease severity on dead-arm and bunch rot  disease especially in the last season this results maybe due to increasing calcium content of cell wall by applied this nutrient program and actions of copper and sulfur as fungicidal effect .Easterwood (2002) indicated that  Many fungi and bacteria invade and infect plant tissue by producing enzymes that dissolve the middle lamella. Enzymes responsible for dissolving the middle lamella include polyglacturonases and pectolytic enzymes such as pectate transeliminase.  Also Easterwood (2002) showed that increasing potassium concentration in lettuce from 1.44 to 4.89 percent did not deter Botrytis infection. However, decreasing tissue calcium concentration by half from 1.06 to 0.54 percent increased infection from a slight to moderate rating. A further decrease in calcium by one-half in the tissue (0.54 to 0.22%) resulted in severe Botrytis infection. Lesson to be learned: enhanced cell wall structural integrity supplied by calcium fertilization is important for plant health.
Increasing tissue calcium content astonishingly lowers polyglacturonase and petolytic enzyme activity, Calcium a part of cell wall It also regulates transport of other nutrients into the plant calcium deficiency results in stunting. In the other hand Copper is important for photosynthesis. Symptoms for copper deficiency include chlorosis. Cell wall strength and thickness are increased by calcium addition. Calcium is a critical part of the cell wall that produces strong structural rigidity by forming cross-links within the pectin polysaccharide matrix. With rapid plant growth, the structural integrity of stems that hold flowers and fruit, as well as the quality of the fruit produced, is strongly coupled to calcium availability.

Reference

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