السبت، 22 مارس، 2014

قوانين كرة القدم بالانجليزية



Rules of football:
1 . The field, goals and ball
A football field is usually turfed , however this sport can be played on other surfaces , some events held on artificial surfaces ( including synthetic ) . The land must not exceed 120 m long and 90 m wide, and must be at least 90 m long and 45 m wide. The objects consist of two upright posts , spaced 7.32 m and connected by a transverse bar to a height of 2,44 m , all bearing a net. The balloon is round , with a circumference of 68 cm to 71 cm and a weight of 396 g to 453 g , a pressure of 600 g to 700 g/cm2.
2 . Play and players
2.1 . The basic principles
The goal to win a football game is to score more goals than the opponent sending the ball into the goal of the opposing team. Only the goalie, when in the penalty area , has the right to touch the ball with their hands or arms. The other ten players , called " fielders " not handle the ball with legs, feet, head and chest. The game is supervised by a referee and two assistant referees or touch judges , responsible for reporting offside and outputs ball into touch and corner.
2.2 . The duration of a match
A meeting is normally composed of two halves of 45 minutes , separated by a rest period of 5 min to a minimum - usually the " half-time" lasts 15 min.
In case of a tie in a bowl game - the principle of elimination works for this type of meeting and requires a winner at the end of the game or at the end of a match return leg was played - extensions are played (2 additional half- time of 15 min each) and followed, if necessary, a series of 5 shots on goal (or penalties ) per team . World Cup played in France in 1998 , however, ushered in the rule of " golden goal " during the match France - Paraguay , both teams were unable to decide when regulation time, the first to score in extra time, in case France won the match and terminating .
Three player substitutions are allowed per team during a match , but at a meeting called "friendly" - no official sporting challenge - how many substitutes may exceed this limit.
2.3 . The arrangement of players on the field
A football team is placed on the ground in a "plan" in four lines allowing players to occupy the best space game and annoy the opponent. The concept of space between the lines is essential in the definition of a tactical game because most lines are tight, more opposing team struggling to move the ball to the end zone . In contrast, " distended " lines offer spaces of movement for players of the opposing team. The objective for a given team is therefore to maintain its own lines of players at a constant distance from each other in spite of attempts by the opposing team to stretch the lines to destabilize .
2.3.1 . Goalkeeper
The goalie, responsible for keeping the end zone - that prevent the ball from crossing the goal line - must wear clothes that distinguish it from his teammates and opponents . It can move on the playground in the same way that his teammates may participate in the game , however this type of travel is not recommended and only a few keepers like to get out of the area that is assigned to them. The goalkeeper alone constitutes the first line of a team.
2.3.2 . defenders
Protecting the goalie enemy attacks , defenders , whose number varies from 3 to 5 according to the tactics adopted , are distributed along the penalty area located immediately in front of goal . The fullbacks are respectively the left and right of the goalkeeper , while central defender before playing it , and directs the game while recovering from an opposing ball.
Most often large and perfectly mastering the game of head , central defender is a key element of a football team because it represents the last line of defense before the goalkeeper against opposing offensive and must also have a global vision of game to build the driving phases .
2.3.3 . Midfielders
Midfielders are traditionally the most versatile of a football team players : both defenders and attackers , they are the hinge around which revolve the various phases of play Positioned on the third line of the team , they can be " defensive midfielders " or " attacking midfielders ." In the first case, they actively participate in the recovery of the ball in a strategic area generally located around the center circle on the ground, while the second direct attack of the game by distributing balloons attackers . Michel Platini , Diego Maradona or Zinedine Zidane are the best illustrations of the fundamental role of midfield .
2.3.4 . attackers
Finally come the attackers , whose number varies from 2 to 3 players - exceptionally , when a team must score a goal, a coach may decide to change four strikers on the pitch at the same time . During the 1980s, attacking game has evolved considerably depriving wingers ( positioned on either side of the center forward ) their function overflow and destabilizing enemy lines from the outside ; now attributed to fullbacks or midfielders when some technical permits them , this function has been replaced by a more compact and physical around the penalty game .
Attackers are now more mobile , less fixed in predetermined positions. The center-forward , which must be available at all times and in all circumstances in the end zone to deprive the opponents of the ball or intercept a ball attack remains the key link and often decisive ( that is to say scorer ) of the line of attack of a football team.
3 . The course of a football game
3.1 . Kick off
A football game begins with a kickoff , the ball is placed on the center circle and one of the attackers hit him (since the 1997-1998 season , it is allowed to score a goal from that moment without having to pass) . When a goal has been scored, the game continues in the same way .
Every kickoff, teams must be in their respective field and half can not get out until the ball has been tapped . It is in play when it has passed in the opposing camp, a length equal to its circumference. The player who kicks consignment has no right to touch the ball again until it has been touched by another player.
A goal is scored when the ball enters a whole between the posts below the crossbar, and the other side of the goal line .
3.2 . the penalties
Unlike penalties , the penalties charged after overtime does not call into play the ball : a shot repelled by the goalkeeper , the bar or pole can indeed be taken by the shooter.
3.3 . The throw-in
The ball ceases to be playable when it crosses the bounds. Upon exiting the game from the side , is said to be sidelined . The throw-in is made by a team member who was not responsible for the release of the ball. The player is placed at the location of the sideline where the ball left the field, takes two hands above his head and sends .
faire face au terrain et avoir les deux pieds au sol.">When throwing the ball , the player must face the field and have both feet on the ground. A goal can not be scored directly from a throw .
When the ball goes out of play from the goal line, it is put into play by either a kick, if the ball was last touched by an attacker , or by a corner ( literally " corner kick " ) if it has been touched by a defender. To restart the game, a defender ( usually the goalkeeper) hits the ball from one side or another in the end zone (" six feet ") and the ball is considered playable when crossed the boundaries of this box. For a corner , the ball must be placed at the end of the goal line on the side where it is out of bounds . The player who takes the corner can not touch the ball until it has been touched by another player, and defenders must be at a distance of at least 9,15 m shooting until the ball was not hit .
When in possession of the ball, the goalkeeper may not move more than 4 not and should not keep the ball in his hands more than 5 to 6 seconds. If, in addition , he receives a pass voluntary foot of one of his teammates , he has no right to seize the ball in hand, but must play foot.
3.4 . Offside
Offside (Rule No. 11) is the most complex of the 17 main rules football : A player is offside when it is closer to the goal line than the ball and the second last opponent (usually last defender or fielder before the goalkeeper) . The offside position is not an offense in itself, but becomes so if the player placed on the ground when the ball touches a teammate or is played by one of them takes an active part in the game , or interfering with an opponent is taking advantage of its position.
4 . faults
The breaches are penalized by direct or indirect kicks and penalties. A direct free kick allows the direct shot , while the indirect free kick requires a pass before the penalty is authorized. A direct free kick is awarded to the most serious offenses . If a foul is committed in the penalty area , it is punishable by a penalty.
4.1 . Kicks
All free kicks ( penalties excepted ) are taken from where the offense was committed, unless it took place in the penalty area . If this is the case , the attackers play the free kick on the edge of the penalty area , parallel to the goal line to the nearest point where the offense was committed there. Defenders can be placed anywhere in the penalty area , provided they are at a minimum distance of 9.15 m from the ball when the kick is played . In case of misconduct against the attacking team , the referee may allow play if the action benefits the team : this is the advantage rule .
A direct free kick is awarded to the so-called "serious" offenses, such as intentional fouls and misconduct . There are 9, 6 of which are sins against an opponent, also 2 more serious against an opponent and the last is a "technical" fault. Drop or try to knock an opponent, jumps at an opponent , a tackle from behind (unless the opponent makes a move obstruction ) , holding an opponent 's shirt or arm , pushing an opponent, load suddenly or dangerously , these are the first 6 fouls. The following two are to give or try to give a kick to another player , hitting or trying to hit another player. The last mistake is to wear, send or hit the ball with the hand or arm .
If a foul is committed by the defense team in its own penalty area , the referee awards a penalty kick in the penalty point . The player who plays a penalty may direct shot and he is the only player with the opposing goalkeeper , who has the right to be in the penalty area until the ball has not been hit . The penalty shall, moreover, the ball game
An indirect free kick is awarded for the following offenses: dangerous than violent game ; charge an opponent who does not have the ball within playing distance , obstruction charge goalkeeper (unless holding the ball or if it is outside his own penalty area ) , loss of time by the goalkeeper who , when a player deliberately sends the ball more than four steps with the ball at the foot touches or twice before that an opponent has touched improper conduct , and technical offside .
4.2 . sanctions
If mistakes are serious enough, the referee may caution a player (he then shows him a yellow card ) . This occurs if the player has made ​​a dangerous move , if it comes out or enters the field without the referee's permission , if breaking the rules repeatedly, he opposes any decision of the referee verbally or by gesture, if it behaves incorrectly sending the ball away when a free kick is awarded , for example , by interfering with a defensive wall or standing in front of the ball to prevent the firing of a kick. In the league and in international competitions , the accumulation of warnings for the same player may lead to a suspension for a number of games determined by the competent authorities.
The referee can show a red card to a player and expel - that is to say definitely do off the pitch without it can be replaced - in the following cases : a defender intentionally interfere illegally an attacker so that it has a clear chance to score a goal and a player behaves in a violent or made ​​a serious mistake , for example a tackle from behind , a defender other than the goalkeeper intentionally touches , in his own penalty area , the ball of the hand or arm to prevent a goal or a goal opportunity , a player uses foul or abusive to anyone on the ground language , and finally , a player continues to commit improprieties after having received a warning.

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