الخميس، 20 مارس، 2014

بحث بالانجليزية الضوء و الصوت




Research  for sound and light


It is known that the Arabs knew physics knowledge of the naturalist and branches of this science that Arabs had a great role in it (the physics of light) is Genius Arabs ((al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham)) (965 m --1,039 m) the creator of the science of light undisputed no less impact in the science of light on the impact of Newton's mechanics and the book is a corresponding reference to the physics of light for several centuries has developed Ibn al-Haytham basic laws of light reflection and break it He explained the phenomenon of double vision and a mirage, but the most important achievements was the Treasury pinhole, which is initially provided to the invention of the camera down to the information age, and now we're using the Multimedia
Light: electromagnetic waves transmitted in a vacuum quickly equals 300 thousand kilometers per second and stop energy light waves at a frequency of these waves higher the frequency of the light wave increased capacity                            The nature of light
Historical Introduction : Since the light has the energy and transmitted in space and as energy transporting either objects or ultrasound if there are two assumptions about the nature of light are the ( theoretical particle particulate Newton ) ( theoretical wave to the world the Dutch Higgins ), but not shining these theories interpret all optical phenomena which necessitated the development of the theory of autism between the wave and particle properties of light is the quantity theory and mention here Planck and Einstein and Bohr

Properties of Light
Engineering properties [ deployment in straight lines - Speed Ltd. - reflection - refraction - Dispersion ]
Properties of the wave [ overlap - diffraction - electromagnetic property - polarization - double refraction ]
Property quantity [ atomic orbitals - probability densities - energy levels - Alkmat – Laser                                                     ]
The reflection of light
The reflection of light : light rays bounce in the middle when you meet the same surface reflectors
The incident beam is the beam up to the surface reflector
Reflected beam is the beam that bounces on the surface of the reflector

Angle of incidence is the angle between the incident beam and column primarily from the point of falling on the surface of the reflector
Angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected beam and column primarily from the point of falling on the surface of the reflector


Law of reflection
Laws of Reflection
The first law angle of incidence = angle of reflection
Second Law of the light beam incident and the reflected light beam and column primarily from the point of falling on the surface of the reflector , all located in one level perpendicular to the surface of the reflector

Some important terms in the light
Refraction of light
Is to change the direction of the light beam when it crosses the interface between two different transparent and Ogg
Two words (keen stocks), where each character is the second character of the name of the color are arranged in ascending order by frequency (red - orange - yellow - green - blue - indigo - violet) sun is the largest source of energy for photovoltaic
Optical density to the middle of what
Is the amount by which characterizes the adoption of the rapid spread of the light on the type of center and measured numerical value for the absolute refractive index of the medium or the ability of the center to break the light rays into force when it
Surface interval
Is the surface that separates the different Ogg transparent in optical density
Optical beam incident
Beam is bound to the surface interval and offset at the point of falling
Angle of incidence
Is the angle between the incident light beam and column primarily from the point of falling on the surface interval

Refracted light beam
Is the new route of the optical beam in the middle, the second after the entry into force of the surface interval
Angle of refraction
Is the angle between the refracted light beam and column primarily from the point of falling on the surface interval
The first law of refraction
The proportion of pocket to pocket the angle of incidence angle of refraction for Ostin certain fixed amount is known as a factor of refraction between the two mediums relative

The second law of refraction
Is the incident beam and the refracted beam in one level with the column primarily from the point of the fall of the beam on the surface interval between the two mediums
The relative refractive index between Ogg
Is the ratio between the speed of light in the middle, the first and the speed of light in the middle, the second
The refractive index of the absolute center of
Is the ratio between the speed of light in vacuum or air , and the speed of light in the middle
Law SNL
Output hit the absolute refractive index of the medium in the first pocket angle of incidence equals the product of the absolute refractive index of the medium in the pocket of the second angle of refraction
Important Notes
The first law of refraction
The proportion of pocket to pocket the angle of incidence angle of refraction for Ostin certain fixed amount is known as a factor of refraction between the two mediums relative

The second law of refraction
Is the incident beam and the refracted beam in one level with the column primarily from the point of the fall of the beam on the surface interval between the two me 5 - If the light rays fall on the surface interval between Ogg and transparent manner perpendicular to implement it without a second center to be broken
6 - when the fall of the light beam of high air to water note that at the point of falling reflected portion of the light and performs other part in the water Menksra and therefore there will be a corner fall and the angle of reflection and angle of refraction and ask here question how much of the energy delivered by radiation to the surface interval between the two mediums are taken by the reflected rays of how much energy is taken by the X-ray broken ? To answer this question, assume that the radiation is carried to the point of falling through a certain period of time energy and let E then divided this energy shall be the share of the reflected rays of which E refl while the share of X-ray broken E refr It is the law of conservation of energy , we find that the energy Fallen equal to the sum Taqtin carried by the X-ray Reflected and carried by the X-ray broken Since every amid except vacuum absorbs the energy of the radiation , if not fit this equality only when measuring near the point of falling If the cross beam for great distances from the middle and did not weaken , but something small call this the center and compromise transparent as glass , water and alcohol Conversely absorb minerals strongly significant radiation scanner that performs them in the sense that they are not transparent for him and reflect the bulk of the radiation that falls upon We note here that all the center more or less reflects and absorbs radiation scanner adopts the reflection and absorption of radiation incident on the body - the type of material - the case of the surface - Installation of radiation - the angle of incidence - where when increasing the angle of the fall of the scan increases the share of the reflected light and reduces the share of refracted light , and also observe the adoption of the reflection and absorption frequency waves have the nature of optional means that the article reflects or absorbs strongly vibrations at a frequency specific and weaken vibration frequency of another , for example absorbed by Earth's atmosphere waves of short wavelength of the visible spectrum strongly (and that of the grace of God we ) while absorbs long waves is much weaker here to ask a question of why we use red light to signal danger and also to alert even though the eye more sensitive to X-Ray green

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